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凤凰文化 > 海外 > 正文
世界上最寒冷的五个地方
2008年12月29日 10:13凤凰网文化综合 】 【打印

3、俄罗斯-雅库茨克

世界最寒冷的城市是雅库次克。雅库次克位于北纬62°,在西伯利亚大陆腹部,冬天气温常降至零下60℃,夏天最热可达40℃,温差100℃,为全世界大陆性气候表现最典型的城市。雅库茨克市是俄罗斯雅库特自治共和国的首府,距北冰洋极近,是萨哈共和国的科学、文化和经济中心,建于1632年,从莫斯科到雅库茨克市距离为 8468公里。雅库茨克市内有两个区,分别为十月区和亚拉斯拉夫斯克区,人口22万,居民多以雅库特人为主。雅库茨克一月份的平均气温为零下40.9度,而七月份的平均气温为18.7度,由于雅库茨克市建于永久冻土层上,因此有“冰城”之称。

4、加拿大-斯纳格·育空河

斯纳格·育空河(snag yukon)位于加拿大,以北美地区最低气温而著称。是亚极地气候,夏季短暂,相当温暖;但是无树的山坡高地属于极地气候。整个漫长冬季有来自西伯利亚或北冰洋的冷气团横越阿拉斯加和育空地区,但偶尔有来自北太平洋的温暖气团越过圣伊莱亚斯山脉的障碍为怀特霍斯(Whitehorse)地区带来较暖的冬季气温。1月平均气温在道生(Dawson)约为-31℃(-24℉),在怀特霍斯则为-21℃(-6℉)。1947年正式记录的北美洲最低温度-63℃(-81℉)是在育空地区西南沿阿拉斯加公路的斯纳格(Snag)记录到的。

5、俄罗斯-奥伊米亚康(Oymyakon)

一般说地球上最冷的地方是在高山之巅和极地区域。但在南北半球和不同地区也不尽相同。专家解释说,亚洲最冷的地方,既不在北极点,也不在北极圈内,而是在俄罗斯西伯利亚东部的奥伊米亚康,位于北纬63°16.2′,在因迪吉尔卡河上游、松塔尔—哈亚塔山同塔斯—克斯塔贝特山之间。那里,12月至次年1月,昼夜气温均低于-45℃,在1885年2月以-67.7℃的正式记录获得北半球“寒极”的称号,1964年1月又以-71℃的低温打破了原有的纪录。

北半球的“寒极”为何不在极点上,而在其南侧约27个纬度的地方呢?这是因为奥伊米亚康是西伯利亚冷高压长期盘踞的地方,周围的地形又属盆地,促进了冷空气的聚积和辐射冷却。而北极圈内为北冰洋,尽管它上面有海冰覆盖,但仍有热量从冰下传向冰上的低层空气,致使气温反倒比不上奥伊米亚康低。(尚力)

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